The Greek word used in that passage (Matthew 16:18) is ekklÃªsia, which means simply "congregation," a term Jews often applied to their own faith communities (e.g. the word appears in reference to Jewish congregations all throughout the Greek translation of Deuteronomy, for example). That statement from Jesus, however, does only make sense if indeed Jesus intended to found a new faith community of Jews. More likely the statement was invented after the fact and only attributed to Jesus to justify the church hierarchy then arising.
Jesus is reported to have said of Peter something like you are the rock upon whom I will build my church. How does 'church' make sense to 1st century Jews? If Jesus the Jew never intended to establish a new religion, why church and not temple?
The Atheist Perspective
Why can't we all know God as unambigously and as truly as did the true, genuine prophets of antiquity?
Why is there religion?
How did the religion you adhere to change or develop from its earliest belief form?
Do Muslims believe in reincarnation?
Answers: Muslim, Muslim
What is your standard of truth? How do you determine what is true?
Atheist God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything Christopher Hitchens Atheist Sense and Goodness Without God: A Defense of Metaphysical Naturalism Richard Carrier Atheist Humanism: A Very Short Introduction Stephen Law Atheist The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason Sam Harris Atheist Why I Am Not a Christian: Four Conclusive Reasons to Reject the Faith Richard Carrier Atheist Not the Impossible Faith Richard Carrier Atheist Atheism: A Philosophical Justification Michael Martin Atheist Proving History: Bayes's Theorem and the Quest for the Historical Jesus Richard Carrier